Vanguard Index Fund Explained
The Vanguard Index Funds are the best around and it comprised of hundreds of stocks and/or bonds. The goal isn’t to pick a few “winners” and beat the market. The goal is to get as much diversification as possible in order to match the market.
Vanguard index funds are a popular option when it comes to diversify the portfolio and reduce fees to a minimum. There are more than 50 Vanguard index mutual funds that track a wide variety of domestic and international stock and bond indexes
Each index fund contains a preselected collection of hundreds or thousands of stocks, bonds, or sometimes both. If a single stock or bond in the collection is performing poorly, there's a good chance that another is performing well, which helps minimize investors' losses.
On the other hand, when investors buy individual stocks and bonds, if one goes south, investors' savings could take a much bigger hit in a short period.
When building a stock index fund, Vanguard purchases shares from a ton of different companies. Vanguard’s goal is to match their ownership of a given company to that company’s share of the overall market.
For example, let’s say a Vanguard fund has $100 to invest and that Amazon represents about 10% of the entire stock market. In this case, Vanguard would invest $10 into Amazon and the remaining $90 into other companies. If Amazon’s value grows, Vanguard buys more. If it shrinks, Vanguard buys less.
Vanguard uses index sampling to track a benchmark index without necessarily having to replicate the holdings in the entire index. This allows the company to keep the fund expenses low. It is more expensive to hold every stock or bond in an index. Further, indexes do not have to allow for the inflow and outflow of funds like ETFs and mutual funds. Vanguard uses the index sampling technique to deal with the natural movement of capital for its funds while still replicating the performance of the benchmark index. Vanguard does not divulge its specific sampling technique.
Then when the investors buy shares in that Vanguard index fund, they have a claim to a small percentage of all those investments that Vanguard makes on the investor's behalf. When those companies give dividends, the investor gets their cut. And as the value of the market grows or shrinks, the value of the investor's investment changes with it.
This is how index funds work across all their respective markets: stocks, bonds, real estate, international stocks, and bonds, etc. Vanguard has 80 index exchange-traded funds and more than 60 main index funds from which to choose. Each will be tracked to their respective market as closely as possible.